WHAT IS BS 8414?
BS 8414 – is a large-scale system test that mimics a fire breaking out of a window and exposing a cladding system to a severe fire. It does not test the individual component parts of a rainscreen cladding system in isolation (i.e. the fixings, fire breaks, cavities or insulation), but rather how the full build up behaves in fire conditions.
BS 8414-1:2020 – This is the fire test method for non-loadbearing external cladding affixed to the masonry face of a building e.g. concrete. Typically, we see this applied in older buildings, originally constructed in concrete.
BS 8414-2:2020 – This is the fire test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems fixed to and supported by a structural steel frame. Typically, we see this in new builds with modern building materials.
The BS 8414 standard was first published by British Standards in 2002 and is the standard used in the UK, the Middle East and Australia.
WHAT IS BR 135?
BR 135 sets out the criteria, design methodologies and fire spread performance characteristics that an external cladding build up must meet in a full-scale fire test.
So, BR 135 is the fire testing criteria (or standard) whilst BS 8414 is the testing methodology (how the test is performed).
Put another way, a full scale system test is carried out according to the BS 8414 methodology, and a fire test certificate is always issued to summarise what happened in the test, even if the build-up did not meet the criteria set out in BR 135. The BS 8414 report is simply a report of what happened and how the build-up performed. If the build-up meets the stringent criteria for performance as set out in BR 135, then a BR 135 Fire Test Certificate is issued.
WHY IS BS 8414 IMPORTANT IN THE RAINSCREEN CLADDING SECTOR?
BS 8414 sets the standard on how rainscreen cladding systems should be properly tested and assessed to minimise the spread of fire in tall buildings, according to the criteria set out in BR 135.
BS 8414 should not be considered on its own, but alongside the BR 135 Fire Testing Certificate.
The BS 8414 testing methodology is important because it provides a recognised standard for testing complete rainscreen cladding build up, and not just the component parts.
BR 135 is important because it measures whether the build-up meets the criteria deemed safe in tall buildings.
When a build-up is awarded a BR 135 classification, architects, contractors and installers – and most importantly the tenants – can be assured that the cladding build up tested performs well in fire conditions, drastically minimising the spread of fire in a tall building. This is especially important in tall buildings where fire fighters need longer to put out the fire and residents are more at risk due to the height of the building and their route of escape.
For any tall building (classed as 18m or above in England and 11m or above in Scotland), combustible materials are not allowed in the rainscreen cladding build up. The only exception to this rule is when a fire test proves the materials used in the rainscreen build up do not contribute to the spread of fire. (Please see ‘what happens in a BS 8414 test’ below for further details.)
各国外墙幕墙防火测试标准对比 BS8414-1｜ISO13785-2 | NFPA285 | JIS A1310
建筑立面系统是绿色建筑和碳中和的关键部分，但其防火安全是一个全球性问题。许多大型的立面防火标准测试被创建来评估立面系统的火灾风险，但它们因国家而异，其测试结果难以比较。研究模拟了五种基于场景的立面防火标准测试，BS 8414-1（英国）、BS 8414-2（英国）、GB/T 29416（中国）、ISO 13785-1、ISO 13785-2、NFPA 285（美国）和 JIS A 1310（日本）。模拟探索了外墙火羽流溢出的热通量和温度，这些火羽控制了外墙火灾的点火和火焰蔓延。
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